It is presently bounded on the north by Tacurong City; on the east by the municipalities of President Quirino and Lutayan (all of the province of Sultan Kudarat); on the south by Koronadal City (the capital City); and on the west by the municipalities of Banga and Norala (all of the province of South Cotabato).
It is primarily an agricultural area: major crops include rice, corn, melon and bananas.
Records of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Tantangan like most of the municipalities of the province of South Cotabato belongs to the FOURTH TYPE of climate that is, no pronounced maximum rain period with a short dry season lasting only for one to three months which is usually from February to April every year. This type is intermediate between the preceding two, although it resembles the first type more closely because it has a very short dry season. This is because the municipality is shielded from the northeast monsoon but is exposed to the southwest monsoon and is also benefited by the rainfall caused by tropical cyclones. The average rainy days is recorded between 142 and 156 days with the months of June, July and September having most of the number of occurrence.
Average rainfall ranges from 1,500 to 2,500 millimeter per year. Air humidity generally follows closely the rainfall pattern. Humidity is highest during the period of June to October with 93% and the months of February and March have the lowest humidity recorded at about 68% to 75% only.
Maximum daytime temperature throughout the municipality is in the range between 36 and 38 degrees centigrade falling to 20 and 21 degrees centigrade during the night depending on the elevation. The hottest period usually occur in the months of April and May while the coldest mornings occur in the months of December and January.
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Mango growers in Tantangan are tied up in thiese activity as they well knew that the soil is very much fertile for the plant. Almost all the 13 barangays are ingaged in mango growing for large scale farming. The product is sold by volume and raw to nearby municipalities, walk in businessmen and transient buyers.
Of all municipalities in South Cotabato, Tantangan is well noted for its pottery industry which is the main source of livelihood of the people of Barangay San Felipe, and partly Tinongcop and New Iloilo. South Cotabatenos flocks to Barangay San Felipe when there is a great need for potted flowers. Artistic jars in various sizes could be ordered in San Felipe. Bricks are among the livelihood in the community.